Menstruaaltsükkel: menstruatsioonid naistel


What does it mean to have your period?

During each menstrual cycle, several physiological phenomena are repeated. The onset of menstruation, also called menstruation, is the last step if there is no fertilization.

Menstruation occurs in young girls between the ages of 10 and 14. In France, the average age is 12 and a half, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2015. It has declined for two centuries. Menstruation marks the start of a woman’s fertility, in short, it means that we can now have children. From then on, each month, a new menstrual cycle will be set up ending with periods in the absence of pregnancy.


A normal menstrual cycle lasts between 21 and 35 days, on average 28 days.

What is the cause of the period? Where does the blood come from?

When you have your period, it usually means that two weeks before you ovulate. To get there, four phases follow one another. The first is the follicular phase, where a follicle in an ovary grows to “mature” the egg. Then ovulation occurs: the oocyte is expelled by the ovary into the fallopian tube. The progestational or luteal phase follows, where the uterine lining, or endometrium, thickens in the event of receiving an egg fertilized by a sperm (we speak of an egg). Finally, in the absence of implantation, the menstrual phase occurs: these are the rules, or menstruation. The thickened endometrium disintegrates, in other words, the nest self-destructs in the absence of an embryo to welcome.

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Periods: what’s happening at the hormonal level

During the first period of the menstrual cycle, estrogen causes the lining of the womb to thicken and the number of its blood vessels to increase. Then comes ovulation, when the egg is expelled from an ovary to progress towards theemakas. The next phase allows the development of a yellow body which secretes another hormone, progesterone. This prepares the uterus, then saturated with blood and tissue, for the implantation of the fertilized egg. But in the absence of fertilization, the level of progesterone decreases, the egg dissolves, and the surface layer of the uterine wall, the endometrium, breaks off and flows outward. It’s the return of menstruation, the first day of which marks the start of a new cycle. Occasionally, your period is not a sign of ovulation, but a consequence of hormonal fluctuations. Especially after childbirth or after stopping the pill.

What is the average period of menstruation for women?

Depending on the woman and the month, periods last between 3 and 7 days. During the first two days, the flow is quite abundant and the blood often bright red. In the following days, it drains in smaller quantities, and as it has stayed longer in the uterine cavity, it turns brown or even black. Even though it sometimes feels like losing a lot, the amount of blood that is passed usually varies from 5 to 25 ml, which is the equivalent of a mustard glass.

Periods can increase the risk of yeast infection

Due to the hormonal dependence of the vagina, its pH, usually around 4, changes. It becomes higher at the time of the rules, and this acidity unbalances the vaginal flora, making the environment more favorable to yeast infections the days before and those after the rules. Do not panic, the,en tupe infektsioonid on väga sagedased and heal easily.

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Painful, irregular, profuse periods: consult!

You should not delay in seeing a doctor if you have severe pain during menstruation, because this pain can be a sign of endometriosis or uterine fibroma. While it is normal to have some painful feelings due to the contraction of the uterine muscle (myometrium) which expels the endometrium, pain during menstruation that prevents a woman from carrying out her activities should prompt her to consult.

Same thing in case of very heavy or irregular periods: it is better to consult a general practitioner, a gynecologist or a midwife. Because, in addition to the repercussions on daily life, this type of menstruation can be linked to a gynecological or other pathology (polycystic ovary syndrome, coagulation problems, etc.).

What medication during menstruation?

For menstrual pain, Spasfon (phloroglucinol), which is an antispasmodic, and paracetamol, an analgesic, are the most recommended drugs. follow the usual dosage written on the box. While anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used, avoid aspirin, on the other hand, as it thins the blood and may cause bleeding periods.

Rules: tampons, pads, cup or period panties, how to choose?

Today there is a variety of periodical protections available to absorb or collect period blood. You can opt for disposable or washable sanitary napkins, for tampons (beware of toxic shock syndrome), for a menstrual cup (to be sterilized according to the instructions for use) or even for menstrual panties. It is up to each woman to find the type of periodic protection that suits her according to her lifestyle, her comfort, her budget, her relationship with her privacy and her sensitivity to the environment. Tampons or the cup are practical for aquatic activities (swimming pool, beach) while the towels prevent blood from stagnating in the uterine cavity. In short, each of these protections have advantages and disadvantages. Do not hesitate to test several types and several brands to find what suits you best.

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